By Hiroaki Misawa, Saulius Juodkazis
An intensive creation to 3D laser microfabrication expertise, best readers from the basics and thought to its quite a few effective functions, resembling the iteration of tiny items or three-d buildings in the bulk of obvious fabrics. The publication additionally provides new theoretical fabric on dielectric breakdown, permitting a greater realizing of the diversities among optical harm on surfaces and contained in the bulk, in addition to a glance into the long run. Chemists, physicists, fabrics scientists and engineers will locate this a priceless resource of interdisciplinary wisdom within the box of laser optics and nanotechnology.
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Extra resources for 3D laser microfabrication : principles and applications
The low heat conduction in glasses (diffusion coefficient ~ 10–3 cm2 s–1) results in a long cooling time with the micron-sized region cooling over ~10 microseconds. Suppose that the laser energy is delivered to the same spot by a succession of short low-energy pulses with the period between them being shorter than the cooling time. In such conditions a sample accumulates energy from many successive pulses and can be heated to very high temperature. This effect was observed experimentally in the bulk heating of glass  and in the ablation of transparent dielectrics .
One can easily see that, using the above estimates, in the case considered, ND ~ 25. Thus, a solid is transformed into a state of ideal gas at solid-state density. 4 Electron-to-ion Energy Transfer: Heat Conduction and Shock Wave Formation The electron-to-ion energy exchange rate, men, in plasma is expressed via the electron–ion momentum exchange rate, mei, in accordance with Landau  as follows: ven » me v mi ei (35) The electron–ion collision rate for the momentum exchange in ideal plasma is well known : vei » 3 · 10À6 lnK ne Z 3=2 TeV (36) Here Z is the ion charge and lnK is the Coulomb logarithm.
J. D. Asimov, Polymorphism, superheating and amorphization of silica upon shock wave loading and release, J. Geophys. , 108, 2421 (2003). Appendix: Two-temperature Approximation for Plasma Appendix: Two-temperature Approximation for Plasma Let us assume that the electron–ion plasma is created early in the laser pulse. Then, the processes in nonrelativistic (v << c) nonmagnetic plasma are described by the coupled set of the kinetic equations for electrons and ions: ¶fj ¶fj qj ¶fj X ¶fjk þv þ E ¼ ¶t ¶x mj ¶v ¶t c k (A1) Here fjz(x,v,t) is a distribution function either for electrons (j = e) or ions (j = i), qj,mj is an electric charge and mass for each species.
3D laser microfabrication : principles and applications by Hiroaki Misawa, Saulius Juodkazis