3D laser microfabrication : principles and applications - download pdf or read online

By Hiroaki Misawa, Saulius Juodkazis

ISBN-10: 352731055X

ISBN-13: 9783527310555

An intensive creation to 3D laser microfabrication expertise, best readers from the basics and thought to its quite a few effective functions, resembling the iteration of tiny items or three-d buildings in the bulk of obvious fabrics. The publication additionally provides new theoretical fabric on dielectric breakdown, permitting a greater realizing of the diversities among optical harm on surfaces and contained in the bulk, in addition to a glance into the long run. Chemists, physicists, fabrics scientists and engineers will locate this a priceless resource of interdisciplinary wisdom within the box of laser optics and nanotechnology.

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The low heat conduction in glasses (diffusion coefficient ~ 10–3 cm2 s–1) results in a long cooling time with the micron-sized region cooling over ~10 microseconds. Suppose that the laser energy is delivered to the same spot by a succession of short low-energy pulses with the period between them being shorter than the cooling time. In such conditions a sample accumulates energy from many successive pulses and can be heated to very high temperature. This effect was observed experimentally in the bulk heating of glass [2] and in the ablation of transparent dielectrics [3].

One can easily see that, using the above estimates, in the case considered, ND ~ 25. Thus, a solid is transformed into a state of ideal gas at solid-state density. 4 Electron-to-ion Energy Transfer: Heat Conduction and Shock Wave Formation The electron-to-ion energy exchange rate, men, in plasma is expressed via the electron–ion momentum exchange rate, mei, in accordance with Landau [5] as follows: ven » me v mi ei (35) The electron–ion collision rate for the momentum exchange in ideal plasma is well known [6]: vei » 3 · 10À6 lnK ne Z 3=2 TeV (36) Here Z is the ion charge and lnK is the Coulomb logarithm.

J. D. Asimov, Polymorphism, superheating and amorphization of silica upon shock wave loading and release, J. Geophys. , 108, 2421 (2003). Appendix: Two-temperature Approximation for Plasma Appendix: Two-temperature Approximation for Plasma Let us assume that the electron–ion plasma is created early in the laser pulse. Then, the processes in nonrelativistic (v << c) nonmagnetic plasma are described by the coupled set of the kinetic equations for electrons and ions:   ¶fj ¶fj qj ¶fj X ¶fjk þv þ E ¼ ¶t ¶x mj ¶v ¶t c k (A1) Here fjz(x,v,t) is a distribution function either for electrons (j = e) or ions (j = i), qj,mj is an electric charge and mass for each species.

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3D laser microfabrication : principles and applications by Hiroaki Misawa, Saulius Juodkazis


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