By A. Reutlinger
This primary complete size therapy of interventionist theories of causation within the social sciences, the organic sciences and different higher-level sciences the provides unique counter arguments to contemporary traits within the debate and serves as worthwhile advent to the topic.
Read Online or Download A Theory of Causation in the Social and Biological Sciences PDF
Similar social philosophy books
This exact e-book deals an unique mind set approximately of the main major difficulties confronting smooth theoretical physics: the unification of the forces of nature and the evolution of the universe. In bringing out the inadequacies of the existing method of those questions, the writer demonstrates the necessity for greater than only a new conception.
Johann Valentin Andrere (1586-1654) used to be a multi-faceted made of past due Reformation Germany. A theologian who used to be firmly dedicated to the Lutheran confession, he may well but see very c1early the issues in his church and argue for his or her reform; with out being an ecumenicist within the glossy experience, he but in demand many facets of the society he saw in Calvinist Geneva, and he acknowledged the phenomenal benefit of person Catholic students.
Within the absence of noble public objectives, renowned leaders, and compelling matters, many warn of a perilous erosion of civil society. Are they correct? What are the roots and implications in their insistent alarm? How can public lifestyles be enriched in a interval marked by means of fraying groups, frequent apathy, and unparalleled degrees of contempt for politics?
- The Philosophy of Friendship
- Pharmakon: Plato, Drug Culture, and Identity in Ancient Athens
- Musical Revolutions in German Culture: Musicking against the Grain, 1800–1980
- The Nature and Limits of Human Equality
Extra resources for A Theory of Causation in the Social and Biological Sciences
3). In the causal modelling literature, undirected edges represent correlations. 4). A directed edge is the shortest directed path in a graph. Although we are interested in causal graphs, there is no formal reason to interpret directed edges causally. g. g. ‘X is a reason for Y’, ‘X confirms Y’). But, since we are interested in causality, directed edges are meant to represent the causal influence or dependence between the values of variables. 4, connecting X and Y, means ‘X directly causes Y’ or ‘Y directly causally depends on X’.
The Interventionist Theory of Causation 33 Relativity: An intervention on X is always to be understood as an intervention relative to Y, the purported effect (cf. Woodward 2003: 103). An intervention on X relative to Y might not be an intervention on X relative to some variable U (for U ≠ Y), because – although condition (a) for being an intervention variable might be satisfied for some variable I – the conditions (b)–(e) might not be satisfied for the second case (for instance, because other variables than in the case of U have to be held fixed as effect variables in the case of Y).
In fact, according to Woodward’s interventionist theory of causation, the existence of a possible intervention is a necessary and sufficient condition for the application of any causal notion: if X is a direct typelevel cause of Y, then there is a possible intervention on X that changes Y (note that this also holds for other causal notions besides direct type-level causation, such as actual causation). This definition encodes a special sort of counterfactual dependence between effect and cause, which is expressed in terms of the truth of a so-called interventionist counterfactual.
A Theory of Causation in the Social and Biological Sciences by A. Reutlinger