By Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker
▓ Book's better half Website
▓ Abstraction is a basic mechanism underlying either human and synthetic notion, illustration of information, reasoning and studying. This mechanism performs a very important function in lots of disciplines, particularly laptop Programming, traditional and synthetic imaginative and prescient, advanced platforms, man made Intelligence and desktop studying, artwork, and Cognitive Sciences. This publication first presents the reader with an summary of the notions of abstraction proposed in a number of disciplines through evaluating either commonalities and adjustments. After discussing the characterizing houses of abstraction, a proper version, the KRA version, is gifted to catch them. This version makes the inspiration of abstraction simply appropriate through the advent of a suite of abstraction operators and abstraction styles, reusable throughout diversified domain names and functions. it's the influence of abstraction in man made Intelligence, complicated platforms and laptop studying which creates the middle of the publication. A basic framework, according to the KRA version, is gifted, and its pragmatic strength is illustrated with 3 case experiences: Model-based prognosis, Cartographic Generalization, and studying Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models.
∙ Collects, describes and compares a number of techniques to abstraction proposed within the literature of varied fields
∙ Discusses why abstraction performs a key position in AI artifacts, utilizing concrete examples, reminiscent of cartographic generalization and human/robot interaction
∙ presents a conceptualization framework to layout powerful systems
▒ Book's Preface
When we all started scripting this publication we have been conscious of the complexity of the task,
but we didn't think that it should take us virtually 3 years to accomplish it.
Furthermore, throughout the research and comparability of the literature from different
fields, it essentially emerged that very important effects were accomplished, yet that much
more very important ones are nonetheless out of achieve. Then, the spirit of the publication replaced, by
itself, from the meant overview of the earlier to a stimulus for the longer term. We
would feel free if the reader, rather than being content material with the tips we propose,
would take them as a motivation and start line to move past them.
We current a wide number of works on abstraction in different disciplines;
nonetheless many proper contributions to the sector were inevitably left out,
owing to the sheer quantity of pages they'd fill. We make an apology for the missing
In this publication we current a version of abstraction, the KRA version, yet this can be not
the middle of the e-book. It has a restricted scope and serves major reasons: on the
one hand it exhibits that numerous prior proposals of abstraction theories have a
common root and will be dealt with within a unified framework, and, at the different, it
offers a computational setting for appearing abstraction by way of using a collection of
available, domain-independent operators (programs). in truth, there's nonetheless a gap
between normal abstraction theories, ordinarily dependent logical formulations of representation
changes, and urban methods that seriously depend upon particular domain
characteristics. The KRA version is intended to be anything in among: the
domain-independence of the abstraction operators achieves either generality (it can
cover a huge spectrum of functions and alertness domains), and synergy (by
instantiating in several contexts a few code written only one time).
Independently of the version, we think that the fundamental principles on which it relies
are extra very important than the version itself. those principles are definitely debatable; some
reader may well imagine that our view of abstraction is strictly what he/she has always
looked for, while another may imagine that abstraction is completely something
else. either reactions are welcome: what issues is to set off curiosity within the subject
and stimulate extra research.
The booklet isn't meant to be a textbook: it's particular to scientists operating on
or utilizing abstraction recommendations, with out hassle of fields. machine scientists,
Artificial Intelligence researchers, artists, cognitive scientists, mathematicians, and curious minds can learn the ebook. a few elements are extra formalized, they usually may
look advanced at the start sight. in spite of the fact that, we think that the best a part of the
content is graspable by means of intuition.
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Additional resources for Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems
For instance, if a department store has recorded every day the number and type of sold items, memorizing these raw data over a period of three years may mask some trends that could have been apparent if the data were aggregated, say, by weeks or months. In order to select the appropriate level, database designers exploit hierarchies over the values of variables. For instance, for a time variable, hour, day, week, month, and year constitute a hierarchy of values of increasing coarseness. In an analogous way, city, region, country constitute a hierarchy for a location variable.
For example, in La Fontaine’s fable Les deux coqs (VII, 13) the sentence “tout cet orgueil périt … (all this pride dies)”, refers, actually to the dying cock. 3 Mathematics Mathematics is similar to languages with respect to its relation to abstraction; in fact, in some generic way everything in it is abstract, because Mathematics only manipulates objects that are far from the sensory world. As Staub and Stern put it , “most people would agree that Mathematics is more abstract than Geography.
36 2 Abstraction in Different Disciplines particular locations, or responses that depend on the spatial arrangement of stimuli” . In spatial reasoning one should be able to abstract time- and space-independent relations from contingent locations, to change among different reference systems, to reason with landmarks and maps, and orient him/herself in unknown environments. All these activities would be impossible without abstraction. Actually there is experimental evidence that not only humans but also animals build up abstract representations of spatial configurations, sharing common spatial features .
Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems by Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker