By Associate Professor Richard B. Gunderman MD, PhD, MPH (auth.)
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This quantity set includes frank and actual information regarding signs, factors, results, prevention, and remedy of substance abuse—alcohol, nicotine, and drugs—and of behavioral addictions equivalent to consuming issues, pathological playing, and compulsive sexual intercourse. together with the main up to date examine, the habit entries are established principally on standards demonstrated via the yank Psychiatric organization in its Diagnostic and Statistical guide of psychological issues.
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Quantity four of the Encyclopedia of the Alkaloids covers the literature to the tip of 1981 and comprises these compounds that have been stumbled on for the reason that quantity three used to be released in 1977. there's additionally a small variety of entries giving lately made up our minds constitution or addi tional information about alkaloids given within the previous 3 volumes.
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For example, experts do not always make good teachers. An expert may understand a subject so well that it is difﬁcult to appreciate what it looks like to novices. The expert may know where the learners should be headed, but ﬁnd it very difﬁcult to discern where they are, and thus experience difﬁculty moving them from point A to point B. In some cases, merely competent individuals may make better educators, because they can better understand and relate to the people they are teaching. In some cases, residents may make better teachers than faculty members, and medical students may make better teachers than residents.
The model of cognitive information processing offers a systematic approach to this problem. One problem can be the failure to encode information effectively. If information never makes it into long-term memory in the ﬁrst place, then it will not be available for use later. To avoid this, learners need to be actively engaged in learning, being asked or asking themselves questions and examining what they are learning from multiple points of view. Another problem is the failure to access encoded information.
In order to discern what is wrong with a patient, we must discover what portion of their structure is out of shape. To know whether someone is ill, we seek a structural abnormality. If the appendix has a normal appearance, with no trace of inﬂammation, then we dismiss the diagnosis of appendicitis. If a patient with cough and fever has a normal chest radiograph, we know that they do not have pneumonia, although they could have a raging case of bronchitis. If a febrile patient has a normal white blood cell count and blood smear, we know that bacterial infection is not the culprit.
Achieving Excellence in Medical Education by Associate Professor Richard B. Gunderman MD, PhD, MPH (auth.)