By M Auty Affiliation: Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, County Cork, Ireland
Polarized gentle micrograph of evaporated milk, exhibiting attribute tomahawk-shaped α-lactose monohydrate crystals (arrow). Scale = 25 μm. summary: Polarized gentle micrograph of evaporated milk, displaying attribute tomahawk-shaped α-lactose monohydrate crystals (arrow). Scale = 25 μm
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An x-ray examination of the glycerides. Part VIII. Glycerides of erucic, brassidic, oleic, and elaidic acids. J. Chem. Soc. 554–558. Chapman, D. 1962. The polymorphism of glycerides. Chem. Rev. 62: 433–456. E. and T. Malkin. 1934. Alternation in long chain compounds. Part II. An x-ray and thermal investigation of the triglycerides. J. Chem. Soc. 666–671. M. deMan, and L. deMan. 1990. Short spacings and polymorphic forms of natural and commercial solid fats: A review. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 67: 835–843.
Notice how the three polymorphic forms can form directly from the melt. Also evident is the irreversibility of the α to β′ to β transformation (monotropism). 19 summarizes many of the principles governing the metastable crystallization of fats. Triacylglycerols are relatively large (small) molecules. It takes a relatively long time for the long hydrocarbon chains to align and form a stable crystal form. The driving force for nucleation (and thus crystallization) is the degree of undercooling (or supercooling).
The Avrami parameters provide information on the nature of the crystallization process. The constant (k) represents a crystallization rate constant. It is primarily a function of the crystallization temperature, generally obeys an Arrhenius-type temperature dependency, and takes both nucleation and crystal growth rates into account. 63) The Avrami exponent, n, sometimes referred to as an index of crystallization, indicates the crystal growth mechanism. This parameter is a combined function of the time dependence of nucleation and the number of dimensions in which growth takes place.
Analytical Methods | Microscopy (Microstructure of Milk Constituents and Products) by M Auty Affiliation: Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, County Cork, Ireland