By T. Z. Blazynski
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Extra info for Applied Elasto-plasticity of Solids
These rely on the plastic indentation of the material and are effected, in each case, by a controlled, constant force acting on an indenter. Depending on the shape of 23 APPLIED ELASTO-PLASTICITY OF SOLIDS the indenter, hardness tests are divided into three groups, that is, (a) Brinell, (b) Vickers and (c) Rockwell. 14a). 7) Although, by definition, the units are those of stress, we must remember that BH does not represent the stress suffered by the material because curved and not projected area is used.
From the physical point of view, the basic difference between the effects of the direct and shearing force intensities, that is, between the direct and shear stresses, is that a dimensional change is produced by a direct stress, but macrodistortion of the structure is associated with shear . These changes are of a temporary nature only in the elastic range of deformations but will be permanent in the plastic regime. 1c, the externally applied system of loading results in the presence of direct stresses a, and shear stresses T, acting on all the faces of our elementary cube .
In these circumstances, the total strain imposed on the material consists of a homogeneous component - associated with the desired change of shape only - and a redundant component that does not contribute anything to the change of shape but increases the level of the current yield stress unnecessarily . 8 imposed on to the basic curve OC of the same material. The basic curve obtained previously in a suitable test, say, plane strain compression , will not be subject to inhomogeneous straining. The level of AA' is clearly higher than that of OC, the implication being that additional straining has hardened the material.
Applied Elasto-plasticity of Solids by T. Z. Blazynski