By Siegfried Hofmann
To a person who's attracted to floor chemical research of fabrics at the nanometer scale, this ebook is ready to provide applicable info. in keeping with usual software examples in fabrics technology, a concise method of all features of quantitative research of surfaces and skinny motion pictures with AES and XPS is equipped. ranging from simple rules that are step-by-step constructed into essentially worthy equations, broad assistance is given to graduate scholars in addition to to skilled researchers. Key chapters are these on quantitative floor research and on quantitative intensity profiling, together with contemporary advancements in subject matters akin to floor excitation parameter and backscattering correction issue. easy kinfolk are derived for emission and excitation attitude dependencies within the research of bulk fabric and of fractional nano-layer buildings, and for either delicate and tough surfaces. it truly is proven easy methods to optimize the analytical process, signal-to-noise ratio, simple task and detection restrict. labored examples for quantification of alloys and of layer buildings in sensible instances (e.g. infection, evaporation, segregation and oxidation) are used to severely overview diverse ways to quantification with appreciate to general matrix correction elements and matrix relative sensitivity components. cutting-edge concerns in quantitative, harmful and non-destructive intensity profiling are mentioned with emphasis on sputter intensity profiling and on attitude resolved XPS and AES. considering preferential sputtering and electron backscattering corrections, an advent to the mixing-roughness-information intensity (MRI) version and its extensions is gifted.
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Extra info for Auger- and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Materials Science: A User-Oriented Guide
3]. 18 2 Instrumentation To protect the sample surface from carbon contamination by adsorption of hydrocarbons that are cracked by the electron beam, an oil-free vacuum system is necessary. Therefore, ion pumps or turbomolecular pumps are most frequently used. To control the residual gas composition, a quadrupole mass analyzer is indispensable. An ion gun (see Sect. 4) with suitable gas inlet device for surface cleaning and depth profiling (see Sect. 1) is generally attached to the system. A typical UHV system for surface analysis consists of the main chamber with the sample stage, electron gun or X-ray source, ion gun (see Fig.
Wehnelt cylinder and condenser lens settings determine the beam current. Standard beam current for useful signal-to-noise ratio is 10 nA (see Sect. 5). 5 to 30 keV, with typical operation voltages of 5 or 10 keV in modern scanning AES spectrometers with high spatial resolution. The primary beam energy is essential for quantification, because the relative intensity of AES peaks changes with the beam voltage as does the backscattering yield. 5 eV and is not particularly important in AES. ) The role of primary electron energy and of current density in quantitative and applied AES is discussed in Sects.
1 Vacuum System The SI unit of the pressure is Pascal, Pa ŒN=m2 , traceably defined in the metric system. However, at least two other outdated units can still be found on instruments’ readout and in publications: mbar and Torr. Therefore, the relations between them should be kept in mind: 1 Pa D 1 10 2 mbar D 0:75 10 2 TorrI 1 Torr D 133:3 Pa D 1:333 mbar: In the following, we will generally use the SI unit Pa, and Torr or mbar only as an exception. 1) coll S. 1007/978-3-642-27381-0 2, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013 11 12 2 Instrumentation Fig.
Auger- and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Materials Science: A User-Oriented Guide by Siegfried Hofmann